Thursday, December 17, 2015

Illinois Central Roundhouse and Freight Yard



Illinois Central Roundhouse, Freight Yard, Green Houses, and Alexander Lumber Yard

Illinois Central Roundhouse
Constructed: circa 1855
Owner: Illinois Central Railroad
Razed: Between 1909 and 1914

Original West Urbana (Champaign) Plat Map 1855

1856 Bowman Map

1869 Birdseye Map

1887 Sandborn Fire Insurance Map of Downtown Champaign. (Red indicates
brick while yellow indicates wood construction)
1892 Sandborn Fire Insurance Map of Downtown Champaign. (Red indicates 
brick while yellow indicates wood construction)  

By 1897, the exterior of the roundhouse had been re clad in wood.

A view of the roundhouse looking west from Oak Street across the railroad tracks.


Illinois Central Rail yard workers seen sitting on the turntable inside the roundhouse.

1902 Sandborn shows a fully developed Main Street.
The dashed lines indicate the piles of material from Alexander Lumber as seen below.

View of the Alexander Lumber yard looking north along Walnut Street.
Note the density of commercial buildings on the west side of Walnut Street.


An early automobile on Walnut Street looking north from Main Street.
Note the Alexander Lumberyard to the right.




News came on April 24, 1911 that Champaign was to receive a new Roundhouse.  The Urbana Courier reported that "Champaign is to have a new Illinois Central round house, machine shop and turntable.  A letter was received by General Foreman Donley of the round house from the master mechanic in Chicago, the letter stating that the appropriation of $65,685 which has been pending for a long time has been passed upon and O.K.'d by the proper authorities."

The roundhouse turntable with Illinois Central locomotive.

It appears the round house became quite a nuisance for a growing Downtown.  In an November 21, 1911 Urbana Courier article, "It is reported that Isaac Kuhn is contemplating the erection of a modern hotel at the Market and Main Streets in Champaign, opposite the Kuhn store, and that his recent trips to Chicago had this in view.  Formally the smoke nuisance from the round house provided an intolerable nuisance to Main street stores in that vicinity, but the early removal to the new round house will render the site more desirable for hotel purposes than at any time since the city was originally laid out."

1915 Sandborn Fire Insurance Map shows the removal of the Roundhouse.
After the roundhouse was razed in Downtown a new, larger,
roundhouse was constructed 2.5 miles north of
Downtown just across the tracks fromWilber Heighs.
1936 Aerial courtesy of City of Champaign 

Illinois Central Roundhouse.
Photo courtesy of the Champaign County Historical Museum
Illinois Central Roundhouse.
Photo courtesy of the Champaign County Historical Museum


Illinois Central Roundhouse.
Photo courtesy of the Champaign County Historical Museum

Illinois Central Roundhouse.
 Photo courtesy of the Champaign County Historical Museum
 
The turntable of  the northern roundhouse seen here in the 1940s.


Illinois Central green houses located on the south side of Washington Street
between the railroad tracks and Walnut Street.
Aerial photo circa 1915-16 shows the rail yard area without the Roundhouse
Illinois Central Rail Yard prior to 1924 looking west across Downtown Champaign.

By 1924 the track system redesigned to accommodate
 Illinois Central freight operations.  Alexander Lumber had 
constructed a lumber yard at the southeast corner of 
Washington and Walnut.
Source: Sandborn Fire Insurance Co.
Publication from 1924 showing the new track configuration.

This aerial view circa 1924 shows ongoing construction of the Illinois
 Central Station along with the configuration of the freight yard.  Note by this
time the original passenger depot had been moved north to its current location.


Illinois Central Freight Station and Water Tower circa 1930.


The Illinois Central greenhouses, seen here circa 1923-24, provided
fresh produce for dining cars.
Photo provided by Ben Halpen

Aerial image looking north encompassing the entire Illinois Central Railroad yard.

Fire destroyed the Alexander Lumber Building at the southeast
corner of Washington and Walnut Street.




Illinois Freight Building seen here in 1971.
Photo Provided by the City of Champaign


The Illinois Central Freight Depot as it stands in 2015.

The Illinois Central Freight Depot as it stands in 2015.  Note the tracks
have been removed from both the north and south sides of the building

The Illinois Central Freight Depot as it stands in 2015.

The north side of the Illinois Central Freight Depot as it stands in 2015.



Small outbuildings have recently been repainted by the owner,
Dr. William Youngerman, in traditional Illinois Central colors.

Small outbuildings remain scattered throughout the rail yard.

Small outbuildings remain scattered throughout the rail yard.

Small outbuildings remain scattered throughout the rail yard.


The support structure for the old water tower still remains on the site. 


Aerial view of the entire rail yard as of 2015.





Saturday, May 30, 2015

106-108 South Neil Street - Atkinson Monument Company & Price Paint Store

106 South Neil Street - Atkinson Monument Company
Constructed: 1904
Owner/Builder: S.P. Atkinson

108 South Neil Street - Price Paint Store
Constructed:Between 1902 and 1909

Champaign Local Landmark - 2003


106 South Neil Street circa 1990.
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

Constructed in 1904 at 106 South Neil, the Atkinson Monument Building stands as one of the finest examples or Richardsonian Romanesque architecture in all of Champaign.  


Sanborn Fire Insurance Map showing the 106 and 108 South
Neil Street Lots in 1902.

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map showing the structures at 106 and
108 South 
Neil Street in 1909.
Its detailing and stonework emphasize the craftsmanship Samuel P. Atkinson wished to portray to complement his engraving business. Thanks to extensive restoration work undertaken by current owner Jeff Mellander, this structure will continue to represent a rare piece of architecture and style no longer found in Downtown Champaign.  Although the Atkinson Monument Company no longer exists, many can still remember the days when window shopping revealed the carvings and engravings of handcrafted headstones in the store window.  It is important to note that although 106 and 108 South Neil Street are currently fashioned in Richardsonian Romanesque, only 106 South Neil carries the original façade.  108 South Neil was previously the Price Paint Store.  Mr. Mellander took great steps to match the detailing of the 106 South Neil when reconstructing Price Paint to match.  This leaves us with a single structure, sharing a common interior space.



106 and 108 South Neil Street (center-right) shown here circa 1930s.  

Neil and Walnut Streets Circa 1920.  Atkinson Monument Co and
Price Pain in the center of the photo (Coca-Cola Wall Sign)

A view of Neil Street looking north from Clark Street
 (Atkinson Monument Co is on the left behind the power pole).

Neil Street looking North from Clark Street circa late 1930s.
Atkinson Monument Company is on the lower left.

Lobby of the Atkinson Monument Company.  S.P. Atkinson on the left.
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

In 1868 a young 24 year old Civil War veteran names Samuel Peabody Atkinson, ventured from his home in Pataskala Ohio to the small growing community of Champaign Illinois.  It was here that he would teach and farm until 1880 when he joined J.W. Booker to begin a business know as Champaign Marble and Granite Company. (News-Gazette, 12/26/1980)  The company was originally located at the intersections of Hickory, Neil Main and Church Streets in Downtown Champaign.

The Champaign Marble and Granite Company owned by J.W.
Booker and S.P. Atkinson at the intersection of Hickory
and Neil Street (razed for Flat Iron Building)
Photo Courtesy of the Champaign County Archives
This location eventually became to cramped for the growing business and it became necessary to look for new accommodations.  Samuel decided on to relocate to a building near the corner of Neil and Chester Streets as a temporary location for his business.  However, Atkinson undertook a project on the request of E.C. Flanigan.  Flanigan had asked Samuel to construct a new building on the location of his former building.  This new structure would forever be known to patrons of the downtown as “The Flat-Iron building”.  This building would be built for the primary purpose of housing the growing Champaign Daily Gazette, today known as the News-Gazette.

The Flat Iron Building (or Gazette) building was constructed
on the former Champaign Marble and Granite Company site at 310 North Neil
in 1901 by S.P. Atkinson.
Photo Courtesy of the Champaign County Archives
You find remarkable similarities in this structure and the structure Atkinson would soon build to house his own business.  The Atkinson Monument Company would eventually build their new structure at 106 South Neil.

Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

Lobby of the Atkinson Monument Company.  Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

106 South Neil Street
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

106 South Neil Street storefront.  Note marble column on this building
matches the marble columns on the Flat Iron Building and Downtown
Wishing Well at Neil and Main Street (One Main Plaza)
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

Work orders from Atkinson Monument Company
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

Work orders from Atkinson Monument Company
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

 The business would operate under Samuel P. Atkinson until his death on April 1, 1937.  Following his death the company was managed by:


  • Emma Schultz Atkinson (wife) 1937-1948
  • Joseph E. Atkinson (son) 1948- 1966.  
  • Mary L VanScheack 1966 - 1981.  
  • Brenda Hopper 1981 - 1988.  
The current owner is Jeff Mellander who purchased the business in 1988 as part of a bankruptcy settlement and attempted to keep the business alive.  However by 1989 the states second oldest monument company would no longer exist. (Courier, 1969)

October 1959 Business Map of Downtown Champaign
Courtesy of T.J. Blakeman

Interior of Atkinson Monument Company.
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander
Walnut Street facade (rear entrance) to 106 and 108 South Neil Street.
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

View of 106 and 108 South Neil Street circa 1970s.

Interior of Price Paint at 108 South Neil Street.
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

Interior of 106 South Neil Street (Atkinson Monument Company)
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

By 1989 the S.P. Atkinson Monument Company no longer existed and by 1996 the owner Jeff Mellander began renovations of the building along with it's southern neighbor at 108 South Neil (Price Paint Store).  Mr. Mellander would completely restore the building and replicate the stone facade of 106 South Neil at 108.  He would then move the headquarters of his business Precision Graphics to the building.

Walnut Street entrance of 108 South Neil Street - Price Paint
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

Interior of Price Paint (108 South Neil) prior to the business closing circa 1980s
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

Interior view of Price Paint (108 South Neil Street) prior to renovation circa 1990
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander


106 and 108 South Neil just prior to renovation circa 1990s
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

Rendering of new storefront at 108 South Neil Street.
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

View of the Walnut Street entrance to 106 South Neil Street.
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

Renovation plans for 106 and 108 South Neil Street (Walnut Facades)
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

First Floor renovation plans for 106 South Neil Street (Precision Graphics)
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

Second Floor renovation plans for 106 South Neil Street (Precision Graphics)
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

108 South Neil Street renovation work prior to new stone facade.
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander


Second floor of 108 South Neil Street following installation of  the new facade in 1996.  
Precision Graphics CEO and building owner Jeff Mellander in the window opening.
Photo Courtesy of Jeff Mellander

View of South Neil Street looking south from University Avenue circa 2000.
Photo Courtesy of T.J. Blakeman

2003 view of 106 and 108 South Neil Street with the City Building in the background.
Photo Courtesy of T.J. Blakeman

Detailed view of the marble column and capital flanking the main
 entrance to 106 South Neil Street
Photo Courtesy of T.J. Blakeman

Detail view of the second floor facade of 106 South Neil Street.
Photo Courtesy of T.J. Blakeman

Detail view of the second floor facade of 108 South Neil Street.
Photo Courtesy of T.J. Blakeman

Detail view of the original storefront and Frank Lloyd
Wright luxfer, multi-light transoms.
Photo Courtesy of T.J. Blakeman

106 and 108 South Neil Street circa 2014.  The Champaign County
Welcome Center is located on the first floor.

Building Description (From the Local Landmark Nomination Form)
by T.J. Blakeman, 2002

Western (Front) Façade-
The western façade of the building fronting onto Neil Street serves as the primary façade and main entrance to the building.  It is this façade that contains the most extensive stonework and detailing.  Starting on the ground level we are immediately drawn to the green marble column on the northwest corner.  This non-fluted, composite column was carved and polished by the Atkinson Monument Company.  Identical columns were found on S.P. Atkinson’s other building in Downtown, the flat-iron located at the corner of Main, Hickory and Neil Street.  This column occupies the chamfered corner which houses the main entrance.  The store windows are oversized plate-glass windows broken by 3 Doric non-fluted columns.  106 South Neil includes Frank Lloyd Wright luxfer, multi-light transoms.  108 South Neil contains a replica of that pattern.  The windows are capped with black cladding to resemble typical storefronts from it original period.  Between the two buildings lies a secondary entrance within another recessed cutaway.  Working upward we notice that the structure is divided up into eight piers.  Five associated with 106 South Neil and 3 associated with 108 South Neil.   These piers travel upward and are broken by two separate capitals.  The first capitals are part of a broken belt course and each capital contains comma shaped carvings.  The second grouping of capitals is part of a Doric style belt course which travels the length of the entire building.   The piers are then topped with a stone coping that runs the entire length of the front façade.  The second floor of the western façade between the cladding and the Doric belt course lies six windows.  The center two windows and the two 2nd floor windows in the Price Building are double hung 2 over 2 windows with 4 lite rounded arch transoms.  The 2 remaining windows flanking the arched windows in 106 South Neil are paired double hung sash windows.  All windows are supported by plain rock-faced lug sills.  The rounded windows are capped with a keystone and voussoir stones.  The paired double-hung windows are capped with rock-faced lintels.  The stone work throughout the entire western façade is limestone rock-faced with margins.  The most notable feature on the western façade is the parapet and upper detailing.  The 2 name block on 106 South Neil is inscribed “Atkinson Building” with a date block between the name blocks on the center pier of the building.  The date on this block is 1904.  The name block on the 108 South Neil is inscribed “Precision Graphics”  The date block for this building reads 1996 and lies on the center pier of the Price Paint portion.  Each name block has 2 rosettes on the centered on the top and bottom of each stone.    

Northern Façade-
The northern façade of the building fronts what used to be Bailey Street and now is used as a municipal alleyway.  This side of the building is not lacking in distinctive architectural features.  The windows are the dominate feature of this façade with oversized fenestration windows with same plain stone lug sill and lintels.  It is revealed that the brickwork on the reminder of the building is common bond variant with 6 stretcher rows per header row.  Looking along the bottom of the building where the walls intersect the road pavement we can see evidence that at one time in the buildings history double rowlock segmental arches were visible perhaps allowing light into the basement.  These window openings are spaced equally and run the length of the building.  Today only the very tops of the former windows are visible today.  Another feature on the northern façade is the pier effect created by a series of 3 external chimneys and 4 internal chimneys.  The 4 internal chimneys extrude out of the façade on the second story and give a corbelled effect. A stone coping runs the entire length of the northern façade and remains at a constant height.  The coping is also accentuated by a crenellated effect which runs the entire length of the wall.  The symmetry of the building begins to fail as you move further east along the alleyway.  Near the northeast corner of the building is a large plate glass window and door that appears to have taken the place of a loading area.  There is now a modern door and handicapped ramp in this area.  The large window is capped with black cladding to match the western (front) façade.  The northeast corner also contains a series of 3 double row-lock segmental arches.  There are also several star tied-in rods.  Overall the northern façade is noticeable formal.  It is assumed that this is because of the former use of Bailey Street as a busier loading area. 

Eastern (Rear) Façade-
This portion of the building fronting Walnut Street once served as a delivery and pick-up area for both Price Paint and Atkinson Monument Company.  The area currently serves as a secondary entrance for Precision Graphics.  Unique features of this façade are the two double row-lock window openings which flank the large area one occupied by a large garage door.  Although the current façade is moved back way from the street the appearance is still given that the façade is in place.  Within this opening is housed the antique lifting mechanism which lifted the heavy granite and stone headstones too and from the delivery trucks.  This system used a network of rails located throughout the building.  There are 5 second story windows on the Atkinson side and 3 second story windows on the Price side.  All windows have the standard plain lug sill and lintel.  The window larger window located on the far left of the Atkinson building was once a door but later converted.  The two flanking windows on the upper floor of the price building are double hung 1 over 1 and flank a large plate-glass window.  The first floor of the Price Building was once used as a secondary entrance like the Atkinson Building.  Photographs revel that at one time both stores displayed their respective names.  Price used a suspended sign and Atkinson used a painted advertisement. 

Southern Façade

The southern façade of the building is partially hidden do to the neighboring one story building.  What can be seen from the street level is a less formal wall that that of the northern façade.  It is reveled from Sandborn Fire Insurance maps that at the time of construction the lot immediate to the south of the buildings was vacant.  We can tell that this wall at one time was used as a billboard for travelers down Neil and Walnut Streets.  There are a number of worn advertisements that still remain on the southern façade. The brick on the southwest corner of the building reveals a quoining effect not seen on the rest of the building.  It would also appear that the Price Building and the neighboring structure do not share a common wall.  There is a stepped parapet with tile coping which wraps the top of the building and proceeds the entire length of the building.  There are several chimneys on the southern façade just as there are on the northern façade.  We find one interior chimney and one exterior chimney.